BIOL-BIOLOGY (BIOL)

BIOL 1120G. Human Biology

3 Credits (3)

This course is an introduction to modern biological concepts with an emphasis on the relevance to humans and their relationships with the environment.

Learning Outcomes
  1. Explain that biology is a scientific discipline based on observations and ex
  2. perimentations.
  3. Explain the process of scientific inquiry and explain how scientific knowledge is discovered and validated.
  4. Describe the chemical basis of living organisms and how biomolecules contribute to the structure and function of cells.
  5. Develop a basic familiarity with cells and cell organelles.
  6. Describe the structure and function of DNA as well as how DNA is used in the production of proteins
  7. Describe the basic principles of genetics and heredity leading to human diversity.
  8. Identify the major features of the systems in the human body, and understand the anatomy and physiology of them
  9. Describe the roles of the organ systems in maintaining homeostasis
  10. Explain the principles of evolution by means of natural selection explaining the diversity of life.
  11. 1Describe how science and technology have impacted life in particular to society and the environment (e.g. medicine, forensic science, agriculture, ecology, sustainability).

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BIOL 1120L. Human Biology Laboratory

1 Credit (3P)

This course introduces exercises, experiences, and activities exploring biological concepts and theories relevant to humans and their relationship to the environment in a laboratory setting.

Prerequisite(s)/Corequisite(s): BIOL 1120G.

Learning Outcomes
  1. Understand general principles of cell structure and function.
  2. Understand general principles of genetics.
  3. Understand basic human anatomy and physiology.
  4. Communicate scientific information effectively.
  5. Demonstrate an understanding of the scientific method.
  6. Knowledge of appropriate laboratory skills
  7. Apply quantitative reasoning and scientific thinking to real world problems.

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BIOL 1130G. Introductory Anatomy & Physiology (non-majors)

4 Credits (3+3P)

This course introduces the anatomy (structure) and physiology (function) of the human body, which includes the study of basic chemistry, molecules, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and terminology related to these concepts. May be repeated up to 4 credits. Restricted to Community Colleges campuses

Learning Outcomes
  1. (Lecture) Define and explain anatomy and physiology.
  2. (Lecture) Use anatomic directional, regional, and sectional terminology related to the human body.
  3. (Lecture) Explain and describe the basic chemical principles of the human body including the structure and function of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids.
  4. (Lecture) Develop a basic familiarity with cells and cell organelles that include cell division, DNA replication, and protein synthesis.
  5. (Lecture) Describe the structure and function of the major tissues in the human body.
  6. (Lecture) Identify and describe the basic anatomical features of the integumentary, skeletal, muscle, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, digestive, respiratory, urinary and reproductive systems.
  7. (Lecture) Describe the basic physiological roles of the integumentary, skeletal, muscle, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, digestive, respiratory, urinary and reproductive systems.
  8. (Lecture) Apply and describe the principles of homeostasis in the human body.
  9. (Laboratory) Use and apply proper anatomic terms
  10. 1 (Laboratory) Develop skills using the microscope correctly.
  11. 1 (Laboratory) Identify basic tissue types.
  12. 1 (Laboratory) Discuss and describe the basic anatomical features of the integumentary, skeletal, muscle, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, digestive, respiratory, urinary and reproductive systems.
  13. 1 (Laboratory) Demonstrate and describe physiological roles of the integumentary, skeletal, muscle, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, digestive, respiratory, urinary and reproductive systems.

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BIOL 1190G. Contemporary Problems in Biology

4 Credits (3+3P)

Fundamental concepts of biology will be presented using examples from relevant problems in ecology, medicine and genetics. For nonscience majors only. Community Colleges only.

Learning Outcomes
  1. Identify the unity and diversity of living things
  2. Identify the structure and function of cells an biological molecules
  3. Recognize and demonstrate patterns of inheritance
  4. Describe mechanisms of evolution
  5. Describe the human body systems including immune response
  6. Discuss population dynamics and ecological systems
  7. Describe the process of scientific inquiry, solve problems scientifically, and communicate on a scientific level
  8. Apply quantitative analysis and scientific thinking to scientific and real world problems

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BIOL 1996. Topics in Biology

1-3 Credits (1-3)

Introductory level coverage of biological topics. May be repeated up to 9 credits.

Learning Outcomes
  1. Varies

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BIOL 2110G. Principles of Biology: Cellular and Molecular Biology

3 Credits (3)

This course introduces students to major topics in general biology. This courses focuses on the principles of structure and function of living things at the molecular, cellular and organismic levels of organization. Major topics included are introduction to the scientific process, chemistry of cells, organization of cells, cellular respiration, photosynthesis, cell division, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. Must be taken with BIOL 2110L to meet general education requirements. May be repeated up to 3 credits.

Prerequisite(s)/Corequisite(s: a C- or better in MATH 1215 or higher and a C- or better in CHEM 1120G or CHEM 1215G or CHEM 1216.

Learning Outcomes
  1. Apply the scientific method to develop and evaluate hypotheses and propose an experiment to test a scientific hypothesis related to cell biology and molecular biology.
  2. Describe the distinguishing characteristics of various biological molecules (water, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids). (HED Area 3, Competency 3)
  3. Compare and contrast the basic features of cells and how prokaryotic cells differ from eukaryotic cells. (HED Area 3, Competency 3)
  4. Understand how organisms maintain homeostasis in a dynamic environment.
  5. Describe how biological molecules are acquired and how they are subsequently used to meet the metabolic needs of organisms. (HED Area 3, Competency 3)
  6. Describe membrane structure and function.
  7. Describe and analyze the nature of bioenergetic transformations and metabolism within the cell.
  8. Describe the processes of cellular respiration and photosynthesis.
  9. Analyze with specific detail the processes of DNA replication, transcription, and translation.
  10. 1Analyze with specific detail the types, mechanisms, and regulation of cellular division.
  11. 1Assess important applications of cell and molecular biology to energy use, medicine, and other day-to-day processes. (HED Area 3, Competency 1,3,4,5)

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BIOL 2110L. Principles of Biology: Cellular and Molecular Biology Laboratory

1 Credit (3P)

This course introduces students to major topics in general biology. This courses focuses on the principles of structure and function of living things at the molecular, cellular and organismic levels of organization. Major topics included are introduction to the scientific process, chemistry of cells, organization of cells, cellular respiration, photosynthesis, cell division, genetics, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. May be repeated up to 1 credits.

Prerequisite/Corequisite(s): BIOL 2110G;Prerequisite(s): MATH 1215 or higher, and a C- or better in CHEM 1120G or CHEM 1215G or CHEM 1216.

Learning Outcomes
  1. Describe and apply the scientific method to generate testable hypotheses in evolution and ecology.
  2. Design and conduct laboratory experiments using relevant laboratory equipment and methods.
  3. Analyze and report data generated during laboratory activities and experiments.
  4. Communicate scientific results from experiments in Mendelian genetics, evolution, ecology, and biodiversity.

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BIOL 2210. Human Anatomy and Physiology I for the Health Sciences

4 Credits (3+3P)

This course is the first of two that serve as an introduction to human anatomy and physiology for biology majors and allied health students. The course entails describing, explaining, and analyzing structure and function from the submicroscopic to the organismal level with emphasis on anatomic, directional, and sectional terminology, basic cellular structure and metabolism, tissue differentiation and characteristics, and organ system structure and function; Specifically the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, and nervous systems.

Prerequisite(s)/Corequisite(s): CHEM 1120G or CHEM 1215G. Restricted to: Community Colleges only.

Learning Outcomes
  1. Describe and apply anatomical terminology.
  2. Describe multi cellular organization.
  3. Distinguish and describe major tissue types.
  4. Describe the structure and function of the integumentary system.
  5. Describe the structure and function of the skeletal system.
  6. Describe the structure and function of the muscular system.
  7. Describe the structure and function of the nervous system.
  8. Describe the structure and function of the special senses.
  9. Define homeostasis and describe specific examples for the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, and nervous systems.

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BIOL 2221. Human Physiology

3 Credits (3)

Physical and chemical operation of the organs and systems of the human body. Not open to students who have passed BIOL 354 or BIOL 381.

Prerequisite(s): Grade of at least C- in BIOL 2110G; BIOL 2110L; CHEM 1215G or CHEM 1120G.

Learning Outcomes
  1. Understand the central physiological principle of homeostasis
  2. Be able to explain why concentration gradients are essential to maintain homeostasis
  3. Understand the regulation of homeostasis by neuronal / endocrine chemical messengers
  4. Understand that changes in bodily function occur throughout the entire life span of the human animal
  5. Incorporate the importance of evolutionary biology to your understanding of human disease
  6. Teach a physiological concept to your classmates
  7. Design experiments to test physiological concepts
  8. Put in plain words how the laws of thermodynamics can explain human disease

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BIOL 2225. Human Anatomy and Physiology II

4 Credits (3+3P)

This course is the second of two that serve as an introduction to human anatomy and physiology for biology majors and allied health students. The course entails describing, explaining, and analyzing structure and function from the submicroscopic to the organismal level with emphasis on specific cellular, tissue, and organ structure and physiology, and organ system structure and function; specifically the endocrine, cardiovascular, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive systems. Additionally, an analysis of these concepts is included: fluid and electrolyte balance, pregnancy, growth and development from zygote to newborn, and heredity. Restricted to: Community Colleges only.

Prerequisite(s): BIOL 2210, CHEM 1120G or CHEM 1215G.

Learning Outcomes
  1. Identify and describe the major anatomical features of the endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems.
  2. Analyze the physiological roles of the endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems in maintaining homeostasis in the human body.
  3. Explain how fluid and electrolyte balance is maintained in the human body.
  4. Compare and contrast the anatomy and physiology of male and female reproductive systems.
  5. Describe pregnancy from conception to parturition including human growth and development from zygote to newborn.
  6. Explain heredity and genetic control.

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BIOL 2310. Microbiology

3 Credits (3P)

Introduction to the basic principles of microbiology, microbial pathogenesis, host defenses and infectious diseases. The course will emphasize concepts related to the structure and function of microorganisms, including their mechanisms of metabolism and growth. Host parasite interactions will also be emphasized, including mechanisms of microbial pathogenesis and mechanisms of host defenses against infectious diseases. Restricted to Community Colleges campuses only.

Prerequisite(s): CHEM 1120G or CHEM 1215G or CHEM 1225G.

Corequisite(s): BIOL 2310L.

Learning Outcomes
  1. Describe and compare the structure and function of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
  2. Describe and compare the techniques used for staining of and microscopic observation of bacteria including morphology.
  3. Describe the nutritional requirements for bacterial growth and the impact of environmental factors on bacterial growth (temperature, pH, oxygen, etc.).
  4. Describe and compare the mechanisms of aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and fermentative metabolism.
  5. Describe the mechanism of bacterial growth by binary fission, and laboratory methods used for observing and measuring bacterial growth.
  6. Describe the mechanisms of bacterial DNA replication, RNA transcription, and translation, and compare and contrast witheukaryotic cells.
  7. Describe the structure and replication strategies of viruses.
  8. Describe and contrast mechanisms of innate nonspecific immunity and adaptive specific immunity.
  9. Describe immune hypersensitivity reactions, autoimmune diseases, and immunod
  10. eficiency diseases.
  11. 1Differentiate between host microberelationships, mechanisms of microbial pathogenesis, differentiate between communicable and noncommunicable diseases and describe mechanisms of direct and indirect transmission of communicable diseases.

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BIOL 2310L. Microbiology Lab

1 Credit (3P)

This course will emphasize both the theory and hands-on application of techniques used in a microbiology laboratory for the growth and identification of bacterial species. Students will learn microscopy skills and staining techniques for the observation of bacteria. Students will also learn aseptic techniques used for isolation of bacteria, inoculation of cultures, and interpretation of selective and differential growth media for the identification of bacterial species.

Prerequisite: BIOL 2310 or BIOL 2320 or concurrent enrollment.

Learning Outcomes
  1. Demonstrate skills of microscopy.
  2. Demonstrate skills of bacterial staining.
  3. Demonstrate aseptic technique for inoculation of bacterial growth media.
  4. Interpret results from selective and differential media.
  5. Demonstrate appropriate use of diagnostic reagents.
  6. Interpret results of diagnostic assays.
  7. Identify unknown bacterial species through the use of a dichotomous key, inoculation and interpretation of laboratory assays, and application of the scientific method.

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BIOL 2320. Public Health Microbiology

3 Credits (3)

This course introduces microbiology on the health profession level. It incorporates cell structure, metabolism, growth, controls of growth, infectious epidemiology, etiology, pathogenicity, and relative virulence of pathogens. It will lead to students assessing a clinical infection scenario from the microbiological perspective that includes making diagnoses based on data from appropriate diagnostic tests, investigating appropriate treatment options, and making recommendations for prevention.

Prerequisite: BIOL 2110G and BIOL 2110L.

Learning Outcomes
  1. Identify key physical features of various infectious agents and describe their structure and function in the pathogen
  2. Describe the microbiological, serological, biochemical and genetic tests that are used to identify infectious agents in a laboratory setting and be able to interpret test results in order to identify the pathogen
  3. Explain how structural and metabolic differences between infectious agents and human host can be exploited for chemotherapy
  4. Explain the observed effect of a particular environmental change on the growth of a given microorganism, and the relationship between bacterial growth patterns and selected foodborne illnesses
  5. Describe several mechanisms by which pathogens generate genetic diversity and the role genetic diversity plays in resistance to therapy and treatment failure
  6. Explain the role of innate, and adaptive immunity in host defense
  7. Describe general virulence strategies used by variety of pathogens, and different types of vaccines along with recommendations for vaccinations of specific populations
  8. Demonstrate understanding of signs and symptoms of selected diseases, and be able to relate disease agents with environmental reservoirs and transmission

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BIOL 2505. Pathophysiology

3 Credits (3)

This course is designed to provide the conscientious student with a solid foundation for understanding the pathophysiological processes of the human organism. Successful completion of this course will promote the general student learning outcomes listed below. Corequisite/Prerequisites(s): AHS 154 or BIOL 2225. Restricted to: Community Colleges only.

Prerequisite(s): AHS 153 or BIOL 2210.

Learning Outcomes
  1. To describe the general concepts of disease processes and factors associated with disease causation.
  2. To identify the function of basic cellular structures, determining the process of cellular malfunctions.
  3. To describe the response of the body to injury and immunologic challenge.
  4. To discuss the etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment modalities of frequently occurring diseases.

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BIOL 2511. Human Pathophysiology

3 Credits (3)

The first in a two-course sequence that covers changes in body physiology that result from disease or injury. Includes a general introduction to pathophysiology as well as an overview of altered cellular and tissue biology, injury, inflammation, and neoplasia. Students will also explore deviation from fluid, hemodynamic, and endocrinologic balance. Topics related to the science of pathophysiology, including pathology, pathogenesis, etiology, epidemiology, and clinical manifestations, are also discussed throughout the course where relevant. Grade of C- or higher in microbiology is recommended. Restricted to Community Colleges campuses only.

Prerequisite(s): Grade of C- or higher in BIOL 2210 and BIOL 2225.

Learning Outcomes
  1. The cellular adaptations occurring in atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, dysplasia, and metaplasia; the types and causes of cellular injury; and the types of necrosis.
  2. The different compartments for body fluids; the factors that affect water movement; the processes that drive and affect capillary exchange; the mechanisms causing edema; the electrolytes in body compartments; the various electrolyte imbalances; the body mechanisms that maintain acid-base balance; and the various acid-base imbalances and how they are compensated for .
  3. The interrelationships of DNA, RNA, and proteins; the various types of mutations; the various types of mutagens, the various types of numerical and structural chromosomal aberrations; the various genetic terms; the single-gene disorders discussed in class; the multifactorial disorders discussed in class.
  4. The relationships between genes, environment, and multifactorial diseases; the criteria used to define multifactorial disease; the characteristics of multifactorial traits; and the various features of the threshold model.
  5. The terms related to tumor/cancer biology, classification, and nomenclature; the various features of cancer biology, including the characteristics of cancer and the genetic basis of cancer; features related to cancer invasion and metastasis; and the clinical manifestations and treatments of cancer.
  6. Features related to Innate and adaptive immunity; features related to the first, second, and third lines of defense; the mechanisms and manifestations of inflammation; components/mechanisms related to the complement, clotting, and kinin systems; mechanisms of wound healing; and features of dysfunctional wound healing.
  7. Aspects/mechanisms of specific (adaptive) immunity, features related to the structure, function, and classification of immunoglobulins; features related to haptens, antigens, immunogens, and epitopes; the different types of antigens; features related to immunological memory; and features related to the different types of active and passive immunity.
  8. Aspects related to allergy, autoimmunity, and alloimmunity; aspects/mechanisms/examples related to the four basic types of hypersensitivity reactions; mechanisms and examples related to autoimmunity; and aspects/mechanisms related to immunodeficiency.
  9. The risk factors for infection; the six components of the chain of infection; general concepts, terms, and processes/mechanisms related to basic microbiology; and the mechanisms of microbial pathogenicity.
  10. 1 General concepts, terms, and processes/mechanisms related to normal hormonal action; mechanisms of hormonal alterations; processes/mechanisms related to the pathophysiology of the various disorders discussed in class; and the clinical manifestations and treatment of the hormonal alterations discussed in class.

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BIOL 2512. Human Pathophysiology I

3 Credits (3)

The second in a two-course sequence that covers changes in body physiology that result from disease or injury. This course focuses on the pathophysiology of the nervous, cardiovascular, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems. Topics related to the science of pathophysiology, including pathology, pathogenesis, etiology, epidemiology, and clinical manifestations, are also discussed throughout the course where relevant. Grade of C- or higher in microbiology is recommended. Restricted to Community Colleges campuses only.

Prerequisite(s): Grade of C- or higher in BIOL 2210, BIOL 2225, and BIOL 2511.

Learning Outcomes
  1. " The different types of sensory modalities; the different dysfunctions of the general and special senses; the different pain theories discussed in class; the various aspects of the neuroanatomy and neuromodulation of pain; the various clinical descriptions of pain; the various aspects of temperature regulation; components of the pathogenesis of fever; the various disorders of temperature regulation; the various aspects of sleep disorders; the various components of visual dysfunction; and the various aspects of auditory, gustatory, and olfactory dysfunction.
  2. The various alterations in cognitive systems; the various alterations in arousal; the outcomes of alterations in arousal; the various alterations in awareness; the various seizure disorders; the various data processing deficits; various alterations in cerebral hemodynamics; and alterations in neuromotor function.
  3. The various disorders of the central and peripheral nervous systems; and the various disorders of the neuromuscular junction.
  4. The components of normal blood; the process/stages of hematopoiesis; the various normal RBC laboratory values; the components and functions of the lymphatic system; the various types of imbalances of erythropoiesis; the various types of anemias and their causes; the various types of polycythemia and their causes; the processes related to hemostasis; the various alterations of white blood cells and their causes; and the various alterations of lymphoid and hemostatic function.
  5. The various diseases of the veins; the various diseases of the arteries; the various aspects of atherosclerosis; features related to the pathogenesis and consequences of coronary artery disease; the disorders of the heart wall and their consequences; the various aspects of valvular dysfunction; aspects of the pathogenesis and manifestations of rheumatic disease; the causes, pathogenesis, and manifestations of infective endocarditis; the causes, manifestations, and pathophysiology of heart failure; and the various types of shock.
  6. The various signs and symptoms of pulmonary disease; the various conditions caused by pulmonary disease/injury; the various disorders of the chest wall and pleura; and the causes, manifestations, and pathophysiology of selected pulmonary disorders.
  7. The features and consequences of upper and lower urinary tract obstruction; the various types of urinary tract infection; the causes, pathogenesis, and clinical manifestations of glomerulonephritis; the various features of nephrotic and nephritic syndrome; and the various features (etiology, pathophysiology, and clinical manifestations) of both acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease.
  8. The various clinical manifestations of gastrointestinal dysfunction; the various aspects (etiology, pathophysiology, and clinical manifestations) of disorders of motility; the causes, manifestations, and pathophysiology of gastritis; features related to the causes, manifestations, and pathophysiology of peptic ulcer disease; features related to the etiology, pathogenesis and pathophysiology of selected malabsorption syndromes, inflammatory bowel diseases, diverticular disease of the colon, appendicitis, and irritable bowel syndrome; the various types of vascular insufficiency; the various disorders of nutrition and their causes and clinical manifestations; and the various disorders of the accessory organs of digestion.
  9. The various features associated with alterations of sexual maturity (delayed puberty and precocious puberty); features related to the etiology, pathogenesis, and pathophysiology of the various disorders of the male reproductive system, including disorders of the urethra, disorders of the penis, disorders of the scrotum, disorders of the testes, disorders of the epididymis, disorders of the prostate gland, and disorders of the male breast; features related to the etiology, pathogenesis, and pathophysiology of male sexual dysfunction; features associated with abnormalities of reproductive tract development; the various hormonal and menstrual alterations and their causes and clinical manifestations; the various conditions related to infection, inflammation, and pelvic organ prolapse (uterine prolapse, cystocele, rectocele, and enterocele); conditions involving benign growths and cancer (endometriosis, cervical cancer, vaginal cancer, vulvar cancer, endometrial cancer, uterine sarcoma, and ovarian cancer); features related to the etiology, pathogenesis, and pathophysiology of female sexual dysfunction (disorders of desire, vaginismus, anorgasmia, and dyspareunia); features related to infertility; and features related to the etiology, pathogenesis, and pathophysiology of breast cancer."

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BIOL 2610G. Principles of Biology: Biodiversity, Ecology, and Evolution

3 Credits (3)

This course is an introduction to the dynamic processes of living things. Major topics include the mechanisms of evolution, biological diversity, Mendelian genetics, and ecology.

Prerequisite/Corequisite: grade of C- or better in MATH 1215 or higher, or a Math Placement Exam score adequate to enroll in mathematics courses beyond MATH 1215.

Learning Outcomes
  1. Understand the scientific method and apply it to biological topics of genetics, evolution, ecology, and biodiversity. Apply quantitative reasoning and scientific thinking to real world problems. Identify and describe the basic principles of evolution. Analyze the relationships between the genetics of populations and evolution. Analyze the processes of speciation. Describe how the hierarchical classification scheme is used to categorize organisms. Describe how DNA research has modernized bio systematics. Compare and contrast the general characteristics of each of the living domains and kingdoms. Relate the structure of organisms to the way they function. 1Explain how the life histories of organisms are adapted for different environments. 1Relate the complexity of behavior to the overall complexity of an organism. 1Describe the ecological roles played by organisms in each kingdom. 1Compare basic ecological principles at the population and community levels of organization. 1Describe and compare energy relationships and the cycling of materials in ecosystems. 1Identify and describe the basic principles of Mendelian genetics.

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BIOL 2610L. Principles of Biology: Biodiversity, Ecology, and Evolution Laboratory

1 Credit (3P)

This laboratory course is an introduction to the dynamic processes of living things. This course introduces students to the methods used in the study of Mendelian genetics, evolution, ecology, and biological diversity. Designed for students continuing in life sciences.

Prerequisite/Corequisite: BIOL 2610G; grade of C- or better in MATH 1215 or higher, or a Math Placement Exam score adequate to enroll in mathematics courses beyond MATH 1215.

Learning Outcomes
  1. Describe and apply the scientific method to generate testable hypotheses in evolution and ecology. Design and conduct laboratory experiments using relevant laboratory equipment and methods. Analyze and report data generated during laboratory activities and experiments. Communicate scientific results from experiments in Mendelian genetics, evolution, ecology, and biodiversity.

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BIOL 2996. Special Topics

1-3 Credits

Specific subjects to be announced in the Schedule of Classes. May be repeated for a maximum of 6 credits. Community Colleges only.

Learning Outcomes
  1. Varies

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